I made what I thought could go in a dwarven trail ration: garlic chicken livers, smoked and peppered cheese, spiced pork sausages, hard tack, dried vegetables, dried wild mushrooms. We tried to eat the livers wife just about threw up. I gagged one down with plenty of ale. Never again. We tried to eat the hard tack by soaking in hot tea. None of us could even get a bite. It took a couple hours of soaking in the sink to even get a fork in it. Everything is made by us except the sausage and cheese. I picked the morels this spring.
I find this really fascinating, since one of my other hobbies is vintage-style bushcraft. The only food I take major issue with is the chicken liver. Organ meats spoil incredibly quickly, so they're usually eaten immediately after slaughter or preserved by incorporating the fat-heavy meat into sausages.
Just as a thought experiment, I think there are some other foods our hearty little dwarven friends would be carrying. Given their homes in mountainous, cool climates (at least in the stereotypical fantasy world) wheat is probably a luxury grain that has to be imported. Their locally produced staple grains are most likely oats, buckwheat, or rye. That means dwarven travelers are presumably carrying sacks of groats or rye berries, all of which make a filling porridge. How about some oatcakes, the go-to food for generations of Irish and Scotts? Or some buckwheat kasha? Dense, dark rye bread keeps for weeks after baking, and is effectively good indefinitely when dried, as in ruisreikäleipä. And you can turn it into kvass, a refreshing alcoholic drink, in about 48 hours.
It's not too much of a stretch to assume that dwarves are experts in preserving food with salt. Outside of metal ores and gems it's the most valuable underground commodity available, in demand by every race and culture. In addition to vegetable pickles dwarves are likely to be carrying salted meats including ham, bacon, and salt pork.