One of the reasons I've become so intrigued by the series is that it hits the same buttons that drew me to Mythos props. Both draw heavily on period design work. For Lovecraftian items that's the imagery and typography of the 20s and 30s, while Fallout mines the 40s and 50s. The two also share a love of pulp super-science filled with fantastic devices powered by glowing vacuum tubes. What's not to like?
YouTube is filled with great Fallout prop tutorials, including these step-by-step videos on recreating in-game bottle caps and product boxes by Keevanski. One thing that really stands out is her use of "Bitumen of Judea" as a griming agent. I've never run across it before, but some Googling revealed it's a popular aging technique in woodworking and interior decorating. I really like the dark sepia/black effect it produces.
As an aside, I was interested in re-creating the in-game first aid box that appears in both "Fallout 3" and "Fallout: New Vegas".
In an example of how absolutely everything is connected, one of my best friends collects vintage first aid kits. Both of us were convinced the video game kit was patterned after a real-world example based on its dimensions and latches, which are tantalizingly close to several examples. After banging our heads against a wall I finally got around to actually reading the Fallout wiki entry for the kit. It turns out it is, indeed, based on a real item, but not an industrial first aid kit. It's a carrying case for a German anti-tank mine from WW II.